Policy Developments on Open Science

Policy Developments in Japan

Since the signing of the joint statement on open scientific research data at the G8 Science Minister's meeting in 2013, several policy developments on Open Science have taken place in Japan. Listed below are the major policy papers and reports on Open Science in Japan, including that of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ), which indicates the viewpoint of academics. Policy papers on "Open Access to Research Publications" and "Long-term Preservation of Research Data," which share the ideals of Open Science, are also listed.

June 2013 A joint statement by the G8 Science Ministers on making research data open ⇒ Japan signed the statement
August 2014 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), "Guidelines for Dealing with Misconduct in Research Activities" (In Japanese)
March 2015 Cabinet Office, "Promoting Open Science in Japan"
⇒ Follow-up discussions have been take place since 2015
January 2016 "The 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan" (In Japanese)
⇒ Open Science has been promoted in order to reinforce the intellectual infrastructure
February 2016 Council for Science and Technology, "Promoting Open Access to Academic Information" (In Japanese)
May 2016 G7 Science and Technology Ministers' Meeting, "Tsukuba Communiqué"
July 2016 Science Council of Japan (SCJ), "Recommendations Concerning an Approach to Open Science that Will Contributes to Open Innovation"
March 2017 Japan Society for Promotion of Science, "Open Access Policy on JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research" (In Japanese)
April 2017 Japan Science and Technology Agency, "JST Policy on Open Access to Research Publications and Research Data Management"
June 2017 Cabinet Office, "Comprehensive Strategy for Scientific and Technological Innovation 2017" (In Japanese)
December 2017 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), "Operational Guidelines for Data Management in Contract Research and Development" (In Japanese)
June 2018 Cabinet Office, "Integrated Innovation Strategy" (In Japanese)
June 2018 Headquarters for Japan's Economic Revitalization, "Growth Strategy 2018 - Reform towards Society 5.0 and Data-driven Society"
June 2018 Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), "Contract Guidelines for the Use of AI and Data - Data Edition" (In Japanese)
June 2018 Cabinet Office, "Guideline for Establishing Data Policy at National Research and Development Agencies" (In Japanese)
March 2019 Cabinet Office, "Guidelines for the Development and Operation of Research Data Repositories" (In Japanese)
May 2019 Academic eXchange for Information Environment Strategy (AXIES), "Recommendations for Research Data Management at Academic Institutions" (In Japanese)
June 2019 Cabinet Office, "Integrated Innovation Strategy" (In Japanese)
December 2019 Cabinet Office, "Report on the Strategy for Research Data Infrastructure Development and International Expansion" (In Japanese)
November 2019 Science Council of Japan (SCJ), "Proposal for the Development of a Sustainable Data Infrastructure for Life Sciences" (In Japanese)
May 2020 Science Council of Japan (SCJ), "Proposal for Toward Deepening and Promoting Open Science" (In Japanese)
May 2021 Cabinet Office, "6th Basic Plan for Science, Technology and Innovation" (In Japanese)
April 2021 Council for Integrated Innovation Strategy, "Fundamentals of the Management and Use of Research Data using Public Funds" (In Japanese)
July 2021 Academic eXchange for Information Environment Strategy (AXIES), "Guideline for Drafting University Research Data Policy" (In Japanese)
December 2022 Science Council of Japan (SCJ), "Responses to deliberations on the promotion of research DX - especially from the perspective of promoting open science and data utilization -" (In Japanese)

Policy Developments Overseas

The ideals of Open Science in terms of sharing research data from publicly-funded research can be observed in policy documents already since 2003. However, major policy developments using the term "Open Science" can be observed primarily within the European Union and other European countries. The Consultation on "Science 2.0" in 2014, which was renamed to "Open Science" as a result of the consultation, was the first. It was followed shortly after by an OECD report in 2015. Since then, the Open Science policies promoted by the European Commission have gained full swing. As for the G8 Science Minister's meeting, the ideals behind open scientific research outputs have already been included in the organization's 2013 joint statement, and the term "Open Science" was used for the first time at the G7 Science Ministers' Communique in 2016.

February 2003 National Institute of Health (NIH), "Final NIH Statement on Sharing Research Data"
March 2003 National Institute of Health (NIH), "Data Sharing Policy and Implementation Guidance"
January 2004 Science and Technology Ministers' Meeting, OECD, "Declaration on Access to Research Data from Public Funding"
April 2006 e-Research Coordinating Committee, Australian Government, "An Australian e-Research Strategy and Implementation Framework"
2007 OECD, "OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding"
July 2009 EUROHORCs and ESF,
'Vision 8: Open access to the output of publicly funded research and permanent access to primary quality-assured research data',
"EUROHORCs and ESF Vision on a Globally Competitive era and their Road Map for Actions"
2010 National Science Foundation (NSF), "NSF Data Sharing Policy"
June 2010 The Alliance of German Science Organisations, "Principles for the Handling of Research Data"
2011 UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), "Common Principles on Research Data"
January 2011 National Science Foundation (NSF), "Data Management Plan Requirements"
April 2012 RCUK, "Common Principles on Data Policy"
June 2012 Royal Society, "Science as an Open Enterprise" (PDF)
2013 Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR), "ANR Open Science Policy"
February 2013 US-OSTP (Office of Science and Technology Policy),
"Expanding Public Access to the Results of Federally Funded Research"
"Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research"
June 2013 The G8 Science Ministers' Statement, '3) Open Scientific Research Data' and '4) Expanding Access to Scientific Research Results'
2014 FORCE11, "Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles" (Japanese Transration)
2014 Australian Research Council, "ARC data management requirement"
May 2014 German Rectors' Conference (HRK),
"Positioning Management of Research Data: challenges for the university management toward a strategic leadership
(Positionen Management von Forschungsdaten - eine zentrale strategische Herausforderung für Hochschulleitungen) "
September 2014 European Commission, "Consultation on 'Science 2.0': Science in Transition"
February 2015 National Institute of Health (NIH),
"Plan for Increasing Access to Scientific Publications and Digital Scientific Data from NIH Funded Scientific Research"
July 2015 The Federal Government of the United States, "Fair Access to Science and Technology Research (FASTR) Act"
August 2015 OECD, "Making Open Science a Reality"
September 2015 The German Research Foundation (DFG),
"DFG Guidelines on the Handling of Research Data (Leitlinien zum Umgang mit Forschungsdaten)"
December 2015 Science International, "Open Data in a Big Data World" (a joint statement by four international academic organizations)
2016 Canada's Tri-Agencies (CIHR, NSERC, SSHRC), "Tri-Agency Statement of Principles on Digital Data Management"
March 2016 FORCE11, "The FAIR Data Principles" (Japanese Transration)
March 2016 Research Data Canada (RDC DRC), "Research Data Management Statement of Principles: Supporting Institutions"
March 2016 Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), "White Paper: Open Science in a Digital Republic"
April 2016 European Council, "Amsterdam Call for Action on Open Science"
April 2016 European Council, "EU Action Plan for Open Science"
May 2016 European Commission, "Open Innovation, Open Science, Open to the World"
June 2016 European Commission, "Realising the European Open Science Cloud: first report and recommendations"
July 2016 The G7 Science and Technology Ministers' Meeting in Tsukuba, '6) Open Science: Entering into a New Era for Science',
Tsukuba Communiqué
July 2016 European Commission, "H2020 Programme: Guidelines on FAIR Data Management in Horizon 2020"
July 2016 hefce, RCUK, UUK, Wellcome Trust, "Concordat on Open Research Data"
December 2016 Australia, "Research Infrastructure Review"
February 2017 Netherlands, "National Plan Open Science"
May 2017 Australia, "2016 National Research Infrastructure Roadmap"
June 2017 UK Open Research Data Taskforce with Michael Jubb, "Research Data Infrastructures in the UK (Landscape Report)"
October 2017 European Commission, "EOSC Declaration"
March 2018 Australian National Data Service (ANDS), "Data Management Framework"
July 2018 Ministère de lʼEnseignement supérieur, de la Recherche et de lʼInnovation, "National Plan for Open Science"
August 2019 National Institute of Health (NIH), "Draft NIH Policy for Data Management and Sharing"
September 2019 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), "DFG Guidelines on the Handling of Research Data"
November 2019 CODATA, "The Beijing Declaration on Research Data" (Japanese Transration)
January 2020 Wellcome, "Sharing research data and findings relevant to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak"
January 2021 OECD, "Recommendation of the Council concerning Access to Research Data from Public Funding"
July 2021 France, "Second French Plan for Open Science: Generalising open science in France (2021-2024)"
November 2021 UNESCO, "UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science"